Submission Guidelines

Manuscript Formats

Manuscript pages should be typed double-spaced with the pages and lines numbered. Generally, manuscripts should be 4,500 words or less. Manuscripts will be converted to a PDF file that reviewers download. It is important that NO identifying material is in the submitted manuscript.

Manuscript Preparation

Text : Maximum recommended text length is usually 8 pages, or 4,500 words. The Journal for Human Performance in Athletics follows the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style. Use generic names of drugs. If a particular brand was used in a study, insert the brand name along with the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses after the generic name. The name and location of equipment manufacturers also should be included in parentheses behind the name of the product.

Units of measure following a number are abbreviated (such as kg, cm). Use metric units in measurements (that is, centimeter vs inch, kilogram vs pound). Limit use of abbreviations; abbreviated terms not used frequently can be spelled out. When uncommon abbreviations are used, give the full term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is mentioned in the text, such as femur-ACL-tibia complex (FATC).

Reports on surgery, except in rare instances, require a minimum follow-up of two years.

P values should be reported in 3 digits, such as 0.05, < 0.01, 0.25, etc. P values reported differently will be edited to this format.

Any material that is submitted with an article (eg, tables and figures) that has been reproduced in another source must conform to the current copyright regulations. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written permission for reproduction of copyrighted material and to provide that documentation to the editorial office before publication. Download a permission form here.

The author is responsible for all statements made in the work, including copy editor changes.

Case Reports

Case reports should have no more than 1200 words, inclusive of the abtract, text, any relevant figure legends, and references. Abstracts should be unstructured. Case reports should not include tables but rather relevant figures with legends describing what is being shown. If anything provided within the case report (images or text) makes the patient identifiable, then you must include a statement confirming that permission was granted by the patient, family, or parent/guardian to publish the case report.

Authorship and Acknowledgment

Submission of a manuscript implies that all authors have contributed substantially to the work and know and approve the content of the submitted manuscript. Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines. Our policy discourages the inclusion of more than seven authors on an article. If more than seven authors are listed, the contribution of each author to the work should be explained in the cover letter. Any person who contributed to the work but does not qualify for authorship should be included in the “Acknowledgments” section. Type acknowledgments in the box provided on the submission page. Please briefly describe the contributions made by acknowledged persons.


References should be typed double-spaced in alphabetical order and numbered according to the alphabetical listing. If references are not in alphabetical order, the uploaded file will be returned to the corresponding author for correction and resubmission in the correct form. When author entries are the same, alphabetize by the first word of the title. In general, use the Index Medicus form for abbreviating journal titles and the AMA Manual of Style for format.

References must be retrievable. Do not include in the reference list presentations from meetings that have not been published. Data such as presentations and articles that have been submitted for publication but have not been accepted must be put in the text as unpublished data immediately after mention of the information (for example, “Smith and Jones (unpublished data, 2000) noted in their study …”).

References will be linked to Medline citations for the reviewers. Authors can include articles that are in Publish-Ahead-of-Print mode. These articles are cited in MEDLINE. To ensure that the references are linked correctly, please provide the PMID number from Medline at the end of the reference. For example:
  • Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH. Injury Rates, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Injury in Minor Hockey. Am J Sports Med. 2006 Jul 21; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 16861577.
  • It is imperative that authors double-check their references and assure that they are correct and complete!


For tables, the system accepts most common word processing formats, but WORD and PDF are preferred. Tables should be included at the end of the manuscript text file so that they are included in the PDF used by reviewers. Tables should be numbered consecutively and have a title. Please be sure the title describes the content and purpose of the table. Tables should enhance, not duplicate, information in the text. Simple tables that repeat textual material will be deleted. It is the author’s responsibility to submit permission to reproduce any tables that have been published previously. Download a permission form here.

Figures and Illustrations

Figures for papers accepted for publication must meet the requirements of the publisher, Sage Publications. Files for line drawings should be created at 1200 dpi, for color photographs at 600 dpi, and for black and white photographs at 300 dpi. Please remember that many image formats are not acceptable for reproduction. Please ensure the quality of your figures match the guidelines provided.

Figures should be submitted in the original form created. Images embedded in Word or PowerPoint files are not acceptable. Glossy prints can be sent to the journal once the paper is accepted if you cannot meet the digital art requirements for publication. Color images are preferred for photographs and bar graphs/charts. Be sure all symbols or arrows are described in the legend. If figure parts (such as A, B) are provided, the legend must explain each part of the figure. Terms used for labels and in the legend must be consistent with those in the text.

Examine all figures carefully to ensure that the data are presented with the greatest possible clarity. Likewise, determine if a figure would communicate the information more effectively than lengthy narrative. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain and submit signed permission to reproduce any copyrighted figures that have been published previously. Download a permission form here.

All photographs of patients must conceal their identity unless it is necessary not to. If the patient’s identity is not concealed, a signed release must accompany the submission. Download an audio-visual likeness release here. If this is not provided, the patient’s eyes must be occluded to prevent recognition.

The backgrounds of photographs should be as simple and free of distractions as possible. Authors may be asked to provide new images if the photos have “busy backgrounds.”

**If an identifier is needed on an image with multiple parts (eg, a, b, c), please provide the image with a lowercase letter (NO PARENTHESES) on the bottom right corner in size 10 pt font. Identifiers are only used when there is a grouped legend. If the image can be presented by itself (has its own legend) no identifier is needed on the image. In addition, any other text used on the image (including arrows, asterisks, etc) should be provided in a separate layer from the base image.

**Charts/graphs should have axes labeled using title capitalization (eg, Mean Follow-up for Athletes). In addition, units should be provided for all axes when necessary and set aside from the table in parentheses.

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